Decontamination and Disinfection Services
The process of cleansing a substance or object to remove hazardous material including infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals is decontamination. Prevention of the spread of microorganism and other noxious contaminants which has the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment is the purpose of decontamination. The application of decontamination is majorly in the medical fields which include; veterinary science, surgery and dentistry.
Not only is decontamination applied in the medical sector but also in environmental science, forensic science and food preparation. In order to remove or eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement there are three methods of decontamination that are used. The three levels include disinfection, sterilization and sanitization.
Disinfectants are used in the level of disinfection in order to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. Not all microorganisms are killed by bacterial spores by disinfection but its effective to some extent. The most effective type of microorganism elimination is sterilization which kills all types of microorganism. Microorganisms are eliminated by the process of disinfection through destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
There are various types of disinfectants which include; alcohols, aldehydes, air disinfectants, oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Inorganic compounds as a type of disinfectant include; chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine.Concentrated formulations are found in some quaternary ammonium compounds which are a large group of related compounds. The group of chlorine as an inorganic compound includes hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite and chlorine.
In the process of decontamination there are several methods that are involved and they are; physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification. Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, suspended solids and gases and biological contaminants from water. Disinfection of drinking water is done through the process of purification which makes it suitable for human consumption.
The following applications that is industrial, medical, pharmacological and chemical are requirements that are fulfilled by water purification. The process of water purification involves three methods which are chemical, physical and chemical.
Reduction in concentration of particulate matter which are parasites, bacteria, fungi, algae and suspended particles with also the inclusion of the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter. A method of decontamination that involves removing or eliminating, deactivation or killing all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media is sterilization which is also a level of decontamination. The process of sterilization is achieved through heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure.